Retinol is simply another name for vitamin A. Retinol is one of the few substances that has been proven to actually work in reducing the signs of aging. However, its positive effects will fade if one stops using it.
Peptides are molecules made from the linking of amino acids. There are plenty of anecdotal stories of their efficacy but essentially no good published scientific data.
Soy and tea extracts and vitamins C and E may also work to help repair skin damage.